Rheumatoid Arthritis Signs and Symptoms, Pathophysiology, and Diagnosis


Rhemotoid arthritis hands

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Definition:-Rheumatoid arthritis is a continual systemic autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in the lining of the joint and often affects the internal organs. Most patient’s exhibit chronic fluctuation, leading to progressive joint destruction, deformity, and disability. It is three times more common in women, and peaks in the age group of 35 to 50 years.

Signs and symptoms:-


∗Joint agony

∗Joint delicacy

∗Joint swelling

∗Joint redness

∗Joint warmth

∗Joint solidness

∗Loss of joint scope of movement

Risk factors:-

Factors that increase the risk of rheumatoid arthritis include:

Your sex:-Women are more likely to have rheumatoid arthritis.

Age:-Rheumatoid arthritis can occur at any age but is more common in middle age.

Family history:-If your family member has rheumatoid arthritis, you are at risk of contracting the disease.

Smoking: –Cigarette smoking increases the risk of rheumatoid arthritis, especially if you have a hereditary inclination to build up the sickness. Smoking likewise has all the earmarks of being related with more noteworthy illness seriousness.

Environmental Exposures:-Although not well understood, some exposures, such as asbestos or silica, can increase the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Emergency workers exposed to dust from the World Trade Center are at high risk for immune system maladies, for example, rheumatoid joint pain.

Obesity:-People especially women 55 and under are at increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis in those who are overweight or obese.

Issues: –

Rheumatoid joint inflammation expands your danger of creating:

Rheumatoid nodules:-These solid bulbs of tissue usually form around pressure points such as elbows. However, these nodules can occur anywhere in the body, including the lungs.

Osteoporosis:- Rheumatoid joint inflammation, along with some of the ingredients used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, increases your risk of osteoporosis – a condition that weakens your bones and makes them crack.

For diseases:-Many drugs used to combat this disease and rheumatoid arthritis can disrupt the immune system, causing infections.

Unusual body composition:-The proportion of fat is higher in people with rheumatoid arthritis and those with normal body mass index (BMI).

Carpal tunnel syndrome: – If rheumatoid arthritis affects your wrist, inflammation can compress the working nerve in most of your hands and fingers.

Lymphoma:- Rheumatoid arthritis increases the risk of lymphoma, a group of developing blood cancers in the lymphatic system.

Heart problems: – Rheumatoid arthritis increases the risk of your hardened and blocked arteries, as well as the inflammation of the sac that surrounds your heart.

The lung disease: – People with rheumatoid arthritis have an increased risk of lung inflammation and scarring, leading to progressive breathing.


Joint involvement: – (e.g. number and location of involved joints)

 Serology: – (e.g., RF-Rheumatoid factor, ACPA-Anti Citrullinated Peptide Antibody)

Acute phase reactants:- (e.g.:- CRP-C-reactive protein, ESR- erythrocyte sedimentation rate)

 Radiographic examination: – reveals the extent of bone loss and cartilage damage. An MRI enhancement can detect the pannus.


Constant aggravation of the synovial tissue covering the joint container brings about the multiplication of this tissue. The kindled, multiplying synovium normal for rheumatoid joint pain is called pannus. This pannus attacks the ligament and in the end the bone surface, delivering disintegrations of bone and ligament and prompting decimation of the joint. The variables that start the provocative procedure are obscure.

The safe framework is an intricate system of governing rules intended to separate self from non-self (remote) tissues. It frees the group of irresistible specialists, tumor cells, and items related with the breakdown of cells.

In rheumatoid joint pain, this framework never again can separate self from non-self-tissues and assaults the synovial tissue and other connective tissues. The resistant framework has both humoral and cell-interceded capacities. The humoral segment is essential for the arrangement of antibodies. These antibodies are delivered by plasma cells, which are gotten from B lymphocytes.

Most patients with rheumatoid joint pain structure antibodies called rheumatoid elements. Rheumatoid components have not been distinguished as pathogenic, nor does the amount of these circling antibodies constantly associate with malady action. Seropositive patients will in general have a more forceful course of their disease than do seronegative patients.

Immunoglobulins can enact the supplement framework. The supplement framework intensifies the insusceptible reaction by empowering chemo taxis, phagocytosis, and the arrival of lymphocytes by mononuclear cells, which are then displayed to T lymphocytes. The prepared antigen is perceived by real histocompatibility complex proteins on the lymphocyte, which enacts it to invigorate the generation of T and B cells.

The proinflammatory cytokines tumor corruption factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)- 1 and IL-6 are key substances in the commencement and continuation of rheumatoid aggravation. Lymphocytes might be either B cells (got from bone marrow) or T cells (got from thymus tissue).

Immune system microorganisms might be either CD4+ (T-assistant) or CD8+ (cytotoxic or executioner) T cells. There are two subtypes of T-partner cells, TH1, which advance irritation by creating interferon-γ, tumor rot factor, and interleukin-2, and TH2, which produce the mitigating cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10. CD8+ executioner T cells regulatory affect the safe procedure by stifling movement of CD4+ cells through arrival of calming cytokines furthermore, advancing apoptosis (cell demise).

Actuated T cells produce cytotoxins, which are straightforwardly poisonous to tissues, and cytokines, which animate further enactment of fiery procedures and draw in cells to regions of irritation. Macrophages are invigorated to discharge prostaglandins and cytotoxins.4 In spite of the fact that it has been proposed that T cells assume a key job in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid joint pain, B cells unmistakably have a similarly significant job. Proof for this significance might be found in the adequacy of B-cell consumption utilizing rituximab in controlling rheumatoid aggravation.

Initiated B cells produce plasma cells, which structure antibodies. B cells likewise produce cytokines that may adjust the capacity of other insusceptible cells, and they likewise can process antigens and go about as antigen-displaying cells, which collaborate with T cells to actuate the safe process.5,6 In the synovial layer, CD4+ T cells are bounteous and impart with macrophages, osteoclasts, fibroblasts and chondrocytes either through direct cell–cell collaborations utilizing cell surface receptors or through proinflammatory cytokines, for example, TNF-α, IL- 1, and IL-6. These cells produce metalloproteinase and other cytotoxic substances, which lead to the disintegration of bone and cartilage.

Vasoactive substances additionally assume a job in the fiery procedure. Histamine, kinas, and prostaglandins are discharged at the site of aggravation. These substances increment both blood streams to the site of aggravation and the penetrability of veins. These substances cause the edema, warmth, erythema, and agony related with joint aggravation and makes it simpler for granulocytes to pass from veins to the site of irritation. The final products of the interminable provocative changes are variable.

Loss of ligament may bring about lost the joint space. The arrangement of incessant granulation or scar tissue can prompt loss of joint movement or hard combination (called alkalosis). Laxity of ligament structures can bring about lost help to the influenced joint, driving to insecurity or subluxation. Ligament contractures additionally may happen, prompting unending deformity.

Read More-Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment and Life Style Changes


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